In the wartime, the Third Reich paid great attention to new scientific developments. German scientists managed to build V-2 ballistic missiles, guided aerial bombs, and rocket-plane aircraft. Initially, they were used to bombard European cities. After the war, most of the ideas behind those mechanical monsters were implemented in space developments, e.g. orbital flights, moon landings, and space telescopes.
Operating on liquid fuel and inertial navigation, ballistic missiles terrified civilians. However, after the war, the scientist found another way to use them.
The American Redstone PGM-11 missile ran on the same fuel configuration. It was in active service until 1964. WRESAT, the first Australian satellite, was sent into space in 1967 using a modified American Redstone rocket. V-2 also became a prototype for the Soviet ballistic missiles "R" series. The Soviets used a modified R-7 to launch Yuri Gagarin into space in 1961.