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Merck & Co., Inc. (Merck) is a global health care company that delivers health solutions through its prescription medicines, vaccines, biologic therapies, animal health, and consumer care products, which it markets directly and through its joint ventures. The Company’s operations are principally managed on a products basis and consists of four segments: the Pharmaceutical, Animal Health, Consumer Care and Alliances segments, and one reportable segment: the Pharmaceutical segment. The Pharmaceutical segment includes human health pharmaceutical and vaccine products marketed either directly by the Company or through joint ventures. In May 2011, it acquired Inspire Pharmaceuticals, Inc. In September 2011, the Company sold its 50% interest in the Johnson & Johnson°Merck Consumer Pharmaceuticals Company joint venture. In December 2011, the Company established an Asia Research & Development (R&D) headquarters for drug discovery and development located in Beijing, China.
Human health pharmaceutical products consist of therapeutic and preventive agents, generally sold by prescription, for the treatment of human disorders. The Company sells these human health pharmaceutical products primarily to drug wholesalers and retailers, hospitals, government agencies and managed health care providers, such as health maintenance organizations, pharmacy benefit managers and other institutions. Vaccine products consist of preventive pediatric, adolescent and adult vaccines, primarily administered at physician offices. The Company sells these human health vaccines primarily to physicians, wholesalers, physician distributors and government entities. The Company also has animal health operations that discover, develop, manufacture and market animal health products, including vaccines, which the Company sells to veterinarians, distributors and animal producers. In addition, the Company has consumer care operations that develop, manufacture and market over-the-counter, foot care and sun care products, which are sold through wholesale and retail drug, food chain and mass merchandiser outlets.
The Company’s pharmaceutical products include therapeutic and preventive agents, which are sold by prescription, for the treatment of human disorders. Zetia (marketed as Ezetrol outside the United States); Vytorin (marketed as Inegy outside the United States), and Integrilin (eptifibatide) Injection is a treatment for patients with acute coronary syndrome. Januvia and Janumet is used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Cozaar, Hyzaar, Zocor and Propecia (finasteride) is a product for the treatment of male pattern hair loss. Claritin Rx (loratadine) is used for the treatment of seasonal outdoor allergies and year-round indoor allergies. Remeron (mirtazapine) is an antidepressant. Vasotec (enalapril maleate) and Vaseretic (enalapril maleate-hydrochlorothiazide) are hypertension and/or heart failure products. Proscar (finasteride) is a urology product for the treatment of symptomatic benign prostate enlargement.
Isentress and PegIntron (peginterferon alpha-2b) is used as a treatment for chronic hepatitis C. Cancidas (caspofungin acetate) is an anti-fungal product. Primaxin (imipenem and cilastatin sodium) is an anti-bacterial product. Invanz (ertapenem sodium) is used for the treatment of certain infections. Avelox (moxifloxacin), which the Company only markets in the United States, is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic for certain respiratory and skin infections. Noxafil (posaconazole) is used for the prevention of invasive fungal infections. Crixivan (indinavir sulfate) and Stocrin (efavirenz) is antiretroviral therapies for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Rebetol (ribavirin, USP) Capsules and Oral Solution is used in combination with PegIntron or Intron A (interferon alpha-2b, recombinant) for treating chronic hepatitis C. Its infectious disease products also include Victrelis.
Maxalt (rizatriptan benzoate) is a product for acute treatment of migraine. Cosopt and Trusopt (dorzolamide hydrochloride ophthalmic solution) are ophthalmic products. Temodar (marketed as Temodal outside the United States), and Emend (aprepitant) is used for the prevention of chemotherapy-induced and post-operative nausea and vomiting, and Intron A for Injection, is marketed for chronic hepatitis B and C and numerous anticancer indications worldwide, including as adjuvant therapy for malignant melanoma. Singulair, Remicade and Nasonex (mometasone furoate monohydrate) are an inhaled nasal corticosteroid for the treatment of nasal allergy symptoms. Clarinex (desloratadine) is a non-sedating antihistamine. Arcoxia (etoricoxib) is used for the treatment of arthritis and pain Simponi and Asmanex Twisthaler (mometasone furoate inhalation powder) is an oral dry-powder corticosteroid inhaler for first-line maintenance treatment of asthma in patients 4 and older.
Proventil HFA (albuterol sulfate) is an inhalation aerosol for the relief of bronchospasm in patients 12 years or older. Dulera Inhalation Aerosol (mometasone furoate/formoterol fumarate dihydrate) is a fixed-dose combination asthma treatment in patients 12 years of age or older. Gardasil, ProQuad and M-M-R II [Measles, Mumps and Rubella Virus Vaccine Live] are vaccines to help prevent measles, mumps and rubella. Varivax, RotaTeq, Pneumovax and Zostavax are vaccines to help prevent shingles (herpes zoster) in patients aged 50 and older. Fosamax (alendronate sodium) is used for the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis. NuvaRing (etonogestrel/ethinyl estradiol vaginal ring) is a vaginal contraceptive ring. Follistim AQ (follitropin beta injection) is a biological fertility treatment. Implanon (etonogestrel implant) is a single-rod subdermal contraceptive implant. Cerazette (desogestrel) is a progestin only oral contraceptive.
The Animal Health segment discovers, develops, manufactures and markets animal health products, including vaccines. Principal marketed products in this segment include livestock products, poultry products, companion animal products and aquaculture products. Nuflor antibiotic range is used in cattle and swine. Bovilis/Vista vaccine lines is used for infectious diseases in cattle. Estrumate is used for the treatment of fertility disorders in cattle. Regumate/Matrix fertility management is used for swine and horses. Resflor combination broad-spectrum antibiotic and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug is used for bovine respiratory disease. Zilmax and Revalor is used to improve production efficiencies in beef cattle. M+Pac swine pneumonia vaccine, and Porcilis vaccine line is used for infectious diseases in swine.
The Company’s livestock products also include Banamine bovine and swine anti-inflammatory. Poultry Products include Nobilis/Innovax, which are vaccine lines for poultry, and Paracox and Coccivac coccidiosis vaccines. Companion Animal Products include Nobivac/Continuum vaccine lines for flexible dog and cat vaccination; Otomax/Mometamax/Posatex ear ointments for acute and chronic otitis; Caninsulin/Vetsulin diabetes mellitus treatment for dogs and cats; Panacur/Safeguard broad-spectrum anthelmintic (de-wormer) for use in many animals, and Scalibor/Exspot for protecting against bites from fleas, ticks, mosquitoes and sandflies. Aquaculture Products include Slice parasiticide for sea lice in salmon; Aquavac/Norvax vaccines against bacterial and viral disease in fish; Compact PD vaccine for salmon, and Aquaflor antibiotic for farm-raised fish.
The Consumer Care segment develops, manufactures and markets over-the-counter, foot care and sun care products. Principal products in this segment include over-the-counter products, foot care and sun care. Over-the-Counter products include Claritin non-drowsy antihistamines; MiraLAX treatment for occasional constipation; Coricidin HBP decongestant-free cold/flu medicine for people with high blood pressure; Afrin nasal decongestant spray, and Zegerid OTC treatment for frequent heartburn. Foot Care products include Dr. Scholl’s foot care products; Lotrimin topical antifungal products, and Tinactin topical antifungal products and foot and sneaker odor/wetness products. Sun Care products include Coppertone sun care lotions, sprays and dry oils.