Python's growing popularity is due to its minimalistic syntax that allows its users to effortlessly write large applications, increase productivity, and improve code readability. The portability of programs written in it makes it easier to solve such problems as analyzing and visualizing data, developing neural networks, creating servers, bots for messengers and social networks, etc. However, despite the fact that Python is a simple and convenient language, it has serious disadvantages such as low speed.
In 2018, Guido van Rossum proposed using assignment expressions in Python. The development community argued his decision. Many thought that the innovation may reduce code readability. Currently, the development of the language is monitored by the supervisory board, which holds meetings after each major update. Thus, it is still necessary to improve the compatibility of the language with tablets, smartphones, and modern technology as well as improve the standard library, etc.
After learning this general-purpose language, you can get a job as a developer in the areas of backend or data science. In addition, designers and journalists can use ready-made libraries in their projects.
Java is a cross-platform language. It works on Windows, Linux, and MacOS. Java was originally called Oak and was developed for programming household devices. It was later used in applied software. Java was created by Canadian engineer James Arthur Gosling who was working at that time at Sun Microsystems in the early 1990s. In different rankings, Java takes 2nd and 3rd place in popularity.
Thanks to its numerous libraries, this strictly typed object-oriented programming language is versatile, so it is suitable for working with simple graphics, and sound files, creating and distributing simple games, embedded and mobile applications, corporate software, and web content.
Since 1998, Java development has been conducted through the Community Process (JCP). A large community of more than 9 million people makes it easy for a novice programmer to find ready-made pieces of code to solve almost any problem. The trademark rights are now owned by Oracle, and the language and the underlying technologies that implement it are distributed under the GPL license.
Powerful and complex C++, an applied cross-platform language of the C family, follows the top 3. Even its creator, Columbia University professor Björn Straustrup, gets amazed by a wide range of C++ application areas. Today, the advanced C language allows programmers to create operating systems, for example, macOS, as well as drivers and utilities.
Almost all desktop applications of the Adobe and Office series are written with C++, as well as the Yandex and Google search engines. The high speed and performance of this language make it suitable for developing video games such as PUBG and Counter Strike, autopilot cars, neural networks, and complex 3D visualization projects - everywhere where huge amounts of data need to be managed efficiently. At the same time, this compilable strictly typed general-purpose language does not have a clear ecosystem and standard network library. Most technical universities teach C++ right after the C course and those who have mastered it have no problems with other tools, understanding their structure and principles.
Universal C is used not only by programmers but also by mathematicians to solve algebraic equations using numerical C++ methods. In addition, physicists and chemists create models of environments and physical processes, artists generate paintings and sculptures, and musicians study acoustic effects and write tracks thanks to this language.
C# has inherited much from Java and C++. It is the next generation of languages with C-like syntax. This cross-platform object-oriented language with strict typing usually takes between 4th and 10th rank in different ratings. It was created in the 1990s by Microsoft engineers Anders Hejlsberg and Scott Wiltamuth to work with the .NET framework and was first released in February 2002.
Nowadays, C# is a universal language that can be used to create applications for Windows and macOS, libraries for C++, computer games (the popular Unity engine for Angry Birds runs on C#), mobile applications for Android or iOS, web services, neural networks, and even 3D graphics for metaverses.
C# is harder to learn but easier to use. Its more expressive syntax eliminates the complexities of C++ and provides powerful features such as zeroed-out type values, enumerations, delegates, lambda expressions, and direct memory access. The ecosystem of the language is evolving rapidly, making it widely used in backend web development: in databases, networking, and in logic programming.
What languages are losing relevance?
According to Stack Overflow, PYPL, and Google Trends, most developers do not plan to continue working with programming languages such as Perl, Haskell, Visual Basic for Applications (VBA), Cobol, Fortran, Kotlin, Objective-C, Assembly, and C.
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